HCV is transmitted primarily through large or repeated percutaneous
(i.e., passage through the skin) exposures to infectious
blood, such as:
Injection drug use (currently the most common means of HCV
transmission in the United States)
Receipt of donated blood, blood products, and organs (once
a common means of transmission but now rare in the United
States since blood screening became available in 1992)
Needlestick injuries in healthcare settings
Birth to an HCV-infected mother
HCV can also be spread infrequently through
Sex with an HCV-infected person (an inefficient means of
Sharing personal items contaminated with infectious blood,
such as razors or toothbrushes (also inefficient vectors of
Other healthcare procedures that involve invasive procedures,
such as injections (usually recognized in the context
of outbreaks)


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